Assam আসাম / असम

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For other uses, see Assam (disambiguation)..

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Assam (/əˈsɑːm/ (About this soundlisten)) is a state in Northeast India, situated south of the eastern Himalayas along the Brahmaputra and Barak River valleys. Assam covers an area of 78,438 km2 (30,285 sq mi). The state is bordered by Bhutan and the state of Arunachal Pradesh to the north; Nagaland and Manipur to the east; Meghalaya, Tripura, Mizoram and Bangladesh to the south; and West Bengal to the west via the Siliguri Corridor, a 22 kilometres (14 mi) strip of land that connects the state to the rest of India.

The indigenous people traditionally include ethnic groups like Tai Ahom people,Tai Khamti people,Tai Turung people,Tai Aiton people, Tai Phake, Koch Rajbongshi, Sonowal Kacharis, Rabha, Chutias, Kalitas, Meitei people, Keot (Kaibarta), Bodo people, Tea tribes, Tiwa, Mech Kachari, Thengal-Kacharis, Sarania Kacharis, Deoris, Doms/Nadiyals, Assamese Brahmins (including Ganaks), Assamese Muslims (particularly Goria, Moria, Deshi communities), Assamese Sikhs[11], Bengali people and Assamese Christians speaking Assamese or any other tribal dialect of Assam as their mother tongue..

Assam is known for Assam tea and Assam silk. The state has conserved the one-horned Indian rhinoceros from near extinction, along with the wild water buffalo, pygmy hog, tiger and various species of Asiatic birds, and provides one of the last wild habitats for the Asian elephant. The Assamese economy is aided by wildlife tourism to Kaziranga National Park and Manas National Park, which are World Heritage Sites. Sal tree forests are found in the state which, as a result of abundant rainfall, look green all year round. Assam receives more rainfall than most parts of India; this rain feeds the Brahmaputra River, whose tributaries and oxbow lakes provide the region with a hydro-geomorphic environment.

The precise etymology of modern anglicised word "Assam" is ambiguous. In the classical period and up to the 12th century the region east of the Karatoya river, largely congruent to present-day Assam, was called Kamarupa, and alternatively, Pragjyotisha.[12] In medieval times the Mughals used Asham (eastern Assam) and Kamrup (western Assam),[13][14][15] and during British colonialism, the English used Assam. Though many authors have associated the name with the 13th century Shan invaders[16] the precise origin of the name is not clear. It was suggested by some that the Sanskrit word Asama ("unequalled", "peerless", etc.) was the root, which has been rejected by Kakati,[17] and more recent authors have concurred that it is a latter-day Sanskritization of a native name.[18] Among possible origins are Tai (A-Cham)[19] and Bodo (Ha-Sam)..

Assam and adjoining regions have evidences of human settlements from all the periods of the Stone ages. The hills at the height of 1,500–2,000 feet (460 to 615 m) were popular habitats probably due to availability of exposed dolerite basalt, useful for tool-making..

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