Varicose veins are enlarged and twisted veins seen on the skin, also known as varicosities. These veins can occur anywhere in the body but are generally more common in legs.
How do varicose veins occur?
Normally there are two systems in the body, one is arterial that carries blood away from the heart and another is venous that returns to the heart. In that case the blood flows against the gravity to reach in the heart from the legs. Veins have a valve that maintains the flow of blood towards the heart and prevent backflow. When these valves damage then blood start leaking back into veins and results in enlarged swollen veins known as Varicose veins.
Almost 30-40% population is suffering from this condition due to multiple factors especially due to the sedentary lifestyle. Women have more tendency to develop varicose veins mainly during pregnancy which results in pressure on the main vein called Large Vena Cava by the gravid uterus results in the increment in venous pressure in legs and results damage to the valve.
The General Causes of varicose veins are:
Varicose Veins Symptoms:
In most of cases, there is no pain in these veins. So common symptoms include:
However, if the problem prolonged, some patients may also experience the following symptoms:
Physical examination: In most of cases, doctors can easily detect Varicose veins by physical examination as these veins are easily visible due to their dark coloration. The doctor also checks the swelling in the veins when the patient is standing.
Color Doppler: is a non-invasive and very handy tool that provide exact information in very less time, almost 20-30 minutes. With the help of the ultrasound, the doctor can easily check the direction of blood flow, faulty valves and the presence of any blood clots or any other obstruction in the veins.
Treatment for Varicose Veins:
The treatment of Varicose veins depends on on multiple factors such as
1. Conservative Treatment Methods:
Almost 70-80% of the patient will get benefit from these methods. These are the following conservative methods:
4. CompressionStockings: These are special shocks that create positive pressure and help in blood circulation. Many varieties are available in the market and come in pre-customized or customized forms.
Surgery: At the advanced stage, it is a conventional method in which multiple cuts are given at skin and vein is removed by pulling; called ligation and stripping.
3. Minimal Invasive Treatments:
In the era of minimally invasive treatments, there are many options in the basket.
1. Endovenouslaser treatment called ‘EVLT’: It is the most common technique in varicose veins treatment. Inthis, a laser fiber is inserted in the entire vein by small pinhole under USGguidance and local anesthesia. A fiber generates heat which destroys the vein lining and results in collapse and permanent closer. Thus these abnormal veins get bypassed by normal circulation.
2. Radiofrequency ablation called ‘RFA’: Recently,a new technology has been introduced that is highly effective in curing and minimizing varicose veins in lesser time. This is a highly non-invasive treatment therapy as it uses radio waves, instead of the laser. As the name suggests, it involves “ablation”. This technique does not cause any damage to any other part or tissue of the body. RFA treatment helps treat the issue using heat created from RF. This heat is sent into a vein using the catheter. The catheter is inserted into the vein and removed when the treatment is done.
3. Mechanochemicalablation called MOCA: Itis the most recent technique available to us. It works on different principles from LASER and RFA. In this case, mechanical damage to the intima is done by multiple prongs by injecting liquid agents called sclerosants leads to chemical ablation. Moreover, there is no involvement of heat as like in RFA and EVLT.
4. Venaseal: Most recent technique that work on the principle of chemical ablation instead of heat. In this, a thin tube called a catheter is inserted into the vein by the pinhole and ‘‘Glue’’ is injected under ultrasound guidance. ‘’Glue treatment for Varicose’’ creates intimal injury and leads to the permanent closure of vein. It is most safe technique among us.
5. FoamSclerotherapy: It is useful for small truncal varicosities in which chemical is injected to close these small veins.Mostly used for army recruits who have small varicosities in the calf. It is cheapest technique and does not require any admission. (type in hindi army meBharti ke liye nason ki fitness)
Advantages of these new Varicose Veins Treatments:
How to Prevent Varicose Veins?
One should follow a few simple tips in order to prevent the development of varicose veins. Some of the effective varicose veins prevention tips are as follows: